Mediterranean Kermes (Kermes vermilio Planchons)
Mediterranean Kermes dye insect was used as a dyestuff and pigment in Sumerians at 3000’s BC. Mediterranean Kermes dye insect was known very important red color source in the ancient Mesopotamia. Kermes had exported from Venice to all Europe in the middle age. Therefore Venice Red as known other name of kermes. Venice Red was very famous red color in the middle age. Mediterranean Kermes was used textile dyeing in the Seljuk period. The dye insect was used widely in the Ottoman Court dyeing after 1453.
Kermesic acid and flavokermesic acid have not been produced synthetically up to now, therefore kermesic acid and flavokermesic acid are produced from Mediterranean Kermes.